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Since 2003 I, Vitaly Klinaev, has been a mastermind and a developer of the main projects of Klinaev Vitaly Cables ñompany. I took interest in cables’ designing after my several years experience as a tweaker who is audio equipment upgrade (enhancement) expert. At a certain point it has become evident to me that with the help of the conductive materials having various types of geometry it is possible to enhance the device’s sounds without any changes in the circuit design. The effect of using such conductive materials was so significant that the subsequent years I dedicated to study and development of superior conductors and, as a consequence, cables.
The main goal of power cords’ (feed lines) development was to fully unlock the conductor’s potential. This is a maximum upgrade that can be carried out on its own without disrupting the philosophy of the playback hardware. Interconnect, speaker and digital cables (transmission lines) were developed aiming at music signal faultless retaining. In other words, the optimally comfortable conditions were simulated for the process of transmission and reception of the original “music fabric”.
You can easily search for the comments on the first-generation cables as well as their drawbacks and restrictions on the Internet. Today I can proudly declare that the Russian manufacturer Klinaev Vitaly Cables company has developed and successfully produces cable products of Super Premium Class of the fifth generation. These products represent the result of the long-term and patient scientific developments that take into account all the experience of the previous generations as well as state-of-the-art technologies. Along with making progress our company steadily adheres to the traditions of perfect quality multiplied by innovative design solutions. I would like to express gratitude to all those people who helped us, participated in the projects’ implementation, appraised and criticized; all those experts who helped make the product better.
With deepest respect to music aficionados,
There are two main requirements which are imposed on high quality audio system: sounds’ transparency and sound image transmission accuracy. Only when these two requirements are fulfilled the really comfortable conditions for audiotape listening are being created. Klinaev Vitaly Cables company develops and manufactures high-technology cables which, when being used in an ordinary premise, can produce an effect of a concert hall that is when a music tape sounds so as if it is being live played!
Why are Klinaev Vitaly Cables company products so unique and exclusive?
Please find more detailed description below.
According to classical theory (Drude, Lorentz) metals can be understood as a crystal supporting structure consisting of positive ions drowned into the media of unbound collective electrons that is called “electron gas” or “electron fluid”. “Electron gas” reflects almost all the light rays that is why pure metals shine so intensively and have grey or white color. Unbound electrons are charge carriers in the metals. If there are any delocalized electrons it provides metals’ high ductility and typical shining, high electrical and thermal conductance. When voltage is applied across a conductor, a field occurs in a crystal that makes the electrons (negatively charged particles) move towards positive electrode with the average speed of about 10(5) m/s. This phenomenon is called “electrical current”. When moving, the electrons are bumping into the ions and losing their energy that transforms into heat. This is how electrical resistance (R) occurs, and, due to such resistance, the conductor is heated. There are two main factors which influence the electrons’ mobility: crystal imperfections and atoms’ inner electron shells’ structure. If a charge is vibrating, then it moves with acceleration, hence it radiates electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic waves possess energy (as well as impulse), that makes us consider them to be as real as, for example, atoms.
Magnetic field energy can transform into the electric field energy and vice versa. When high-frequency vibrations’ energy is being transmitted “via a circuit”, the current’s density increases closer to the cable conductor skin. Moreover, the higher the frequency the more intensive the skin effect is. Electromagnetic energy concentrates mainly in the insulation ringing the conductor that is why when the high-frequency magnetic energy is transmitted via cable conductors, these are not cable conductors which transmit the signal, but the media around them. Thus, the cable conductors actually vector the energy movement. Due to this, the electromagnetic energy does not dissipate, but moves along the line. The electromagnetic waves’ velocity is determined by the current’s frequency and the circuit’s parameters. The electromagnetic waves go through phase and amplitude changes when being transmitted via the cable circuit. The perfect transmission line is the line with no losses in conductors and dielectrics and with no disruption of the transmitted impulse. It is to be recalled that a music signal is a complex of sinusoidal pulses. The phenomenon of decay is conditioned by energy heat losses in conductors, insulation losses for dielectric polarization, dipole losses as well as by leak current, and potential difference, etc. The quality of the transmission via communication cable lines and these lines’ electric properties are defined by the cable initial parameters: conductors’ resistive impedance (R), inductance (L), capacity (C) and insulation conductance (G), all of which are referred to a length unit. These parameters do not depend on the voltage and current transmitted, but they do depend on the cable structure and the frequency of the current used.
It is safe to say that using of expensive and compound materials is justified by the common purpose that is decreasing of electrical capacity (C) between contradirectional conductors or between a conductor and a shield.
At that, our theoretical review may be completed, and below you can learn about solutions proposed by our company!
Our Company Know-How.
1. Reducing Defects
Producing a wire by a hydro-extrudable method. This process (under a high pressure) evokes secondary recrystallization accompanied by the intensive growth of certain crystallites due to absorption of the smaller ones, following which monocrystal areas occur.
After that, when annealing temperature is increasing, several monocrystal areas occur.
It should be noted that it is the purity of the metal which influences the monocrystals’ generation. That is why we started to use oxygen-free copper OFC and silver Ag 999 -999.9. Manufacturing industry uses this type of copper only for wires of a very small diameter (0.01 mm) and for wires used at the temperature exceeding 300 C.
Impurities’ concentration does not exceed 0.001 % in these materials.
2. Skin Effect
Due to skin effect the conductor resistance increases at high frequencies.L With the increase of the frequency the current concentrates close to the conductor surface.
As a result, the signal frequency change is followed by the conductor effective cross-section change, hence its resistance. The skin effect implicates a situation when, at the high frequency, a conducting tube has the same resistance as a solid conductor would have.L
At the frequency of about 20 kHz the current’s density decreases by 60 % in the center of the conductor of 1 mm diameter. Thus, the conductor will have different resistance for HF and LF components of the signal. That is why there are not so many cables which can give, when being used, a detailed, having aftersounds, opened and timbrally authentic sounding. The conductor resistance can be decreased if the cross-section shape is changed. The conductor with a rectangular cross-section has smaller resistance as well as smaller inductance than a circular conductor with the same cross-section area.
That is why ribbon conductors are usually applied even as grounding conductors in comparatively low-frequency circuits.
What is our solution of the skin effect issue?
We discovered that the high-frequency current (this is exactly the current we need) concentrates on the skin of the conductor. The skin thickness amounts to parts of millimeter at the frequency of f > 10 kHz. This means that it is required to use such conductors which will provide a large area and small thickness.
In interconnect cables the conductor thickness may amount up to 20 microns and the operating range from 0 to 10 MHz.
In speaker cables a unique wedge-shaped conductor is used with the apex thickness of up to 0.14 mm and the operating range from 0 to 200 kHz.
Power cords operate at 50 Hz and have the conductor thickness exceeding 1.5 mm.
Regardless of the fact that these frequencies (f>20 kHz) seem to be out of the range of audio perception, nevertheless, they affect a timbre and contribute to the sound purity when high audio frequencies are being reproduced.
3. Electric Resistance
Resistance issue has a number of aspects that is why it should be solved taking into account all the aspects at the same time.
Metal specific resistance may change due to the changes in the conditions of (electrons) carrier scattering on crystal imperfections; the purer the metal the lower residual resistance is (this issue has been discussed in detail in the first clause).
The conductor resistance also has a direct dependence on temperature (T) that is: the higher the temperature the higher the specific resistance is and vice versa.
What is our solution?
First, conductors are kept under high pressure. It has been found that electrical and magnetic properties of metals considerably improve if being subject to high pressures. After pressure release the material partially retains the properties’ valuable changes. In due course our company managed to produce a bimetallic conductor by means of “joining” silver and copper under high pressure. During all-round compression the specific resistance decreases in most of the metals. This is explained by the atoms’ approaching and the lattice temperature vibrations’ amplitude decrease.
Secondly, the conductor’s geometry resembles auger-type drill if to look at its shape. The most part of the conductor’s area surrounded by air operates on the principle of a radiator, meaning it quickly cools down, thus providing more stable operation in extreme modes, for example, when low-frequency signal is transmitted.
Thirdly, polishing. Smooth (polished) surface affects the transmission of the frequencies, especially the highest ones.
Our conductors are being polished (with a special water-based composition) under high pressure. Due to such treatment even the most complicated areas of the conductor’s surface obtain a perfect mirror surface and have minimum resistance at high frequencies.
4. Electrical Capacity
The capacity parameter is the most important in interconnect cables due to two reasons. When using a long cable with a high capacity the majority of the signal sources (preamplifiers, CD-ROM players, tuners, etc.) are not able to “pimp the cable” (the higher the capacity the more intensive the signal decay is). Significant frequency distortions are possible. High capacity provides a high field between direct and return lines (and shield), and, as a result, a lot of the energy remains in the dielectric (the same process occurs in a condenser). In the range of the audible frequencies the capacity unit, together with the conductor resistance, control the level of the signal decay, and the lower the decay level the better the cable is.
What is our solution of this issue?
First of all, signaling and grounding conductors are maximally distanced from each other. Secondly, due to unique geometry the number of conductors is maximally reduced, to the extent of one pair for a cable. Thus, the conductors’ system capacity comes to nothing, and the signal is transmitted with the minimal decay.
5. Interaction Attraction Effect
In each of two closely located conductors high-frequency current is flowing, until the distance between the conductors remains stable and the currents’ flow is codirectional. If the currents’ flows are contradirectional, then the resistance of each of the conductors increases. Why does it happen? A few amperes current, e.g., in speaker cable, creates a high magnetic field. This field is located around every conductor so that every separate conductor dynamically interacts with the one that is close to it. More intensive low-frequency magnetic fields affect high-frequency ones modulating them. The conductors are being attracted and repelled on the microscopic level.
Contact pressure and contact distortions caused by the conductors are also modulated by the passing signal.
Even ensuring absolute mechanical hardness in a multi-core cable it is impossible to avoid field distortions caused by electromagnetic interaction, as the most part of the energy is transferred with this very electromagnetic field. The modulation problem is not so crucial for interconnect cables as the currents are low, however, low current signals may be affected by low fields. Even these low fields cause noticeable distortions at milliampere currents.
What is our solution of this issue?
Once again, except for the maximum distance between the conductors, the geometry of the very conductor helps solve this issue. The fact is that the field lines are located around the conductor in a standard circular conductor, and, consequently, they intercross with the field lines of closely located conductors at certain currents. Klinaev Vitaly Cables conductors are designed so that the electromagnetic field lines’ vector is directed along the conductor that essentially simplifies the solution of the above mentioned issues, mainly capacity effect and attraction effect.
6. Insulation Losses
It is important what material is used for dielectric. Any dielectric absorbs and reflects the electromagnetic field energy to a greater or lesser extent. That will do if only absorption takes place, as such losses may be compensated. But materials absorb energy depending on frequency and the frequency-dependent compensation is difficult to achieve! Moreover, dielectrics also reflect energy! If there is a time delay between the energy absorption and reflection, then such dielectric is able to destroy a sound!
The energy, returned after the delay, unpredictably interacts with the conductor’s field causing serious distortions. The way out is to apply materials which behave neutrally all the way up to radiofrequencies. A perfect conductor should have no other insulation, except vacuum.
What is our solution of this issue?
PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tubing is used as conductor coating. This tubing’s dielectric constant is within 1.2 – 1.5 and vacuum is equal to 1.0. Thus, the majority of the conductors are designed so that they are connected with the coating only tangentially and 99.9 % of the conductor’s area is in the air. Notably, the process of covering conductor with coating takes place at high T, over 100 C, the ambient air is expelled at this moment, and the conductor’s ends are lead-sealed.
7. Potential Difference
Potential difference occurs between two different metallic conductors in the place of their connection. This potential difference is caused by the difference of the electronic work function of different metals, different electrons’ concentration and electronic gas pressure. If connectors are soldered not accurately enough, this results in nonhomogenity. Sometimes the very material of the connector facilitates reflection which spreads from end to end for a long time and distorts the transmitted impulse as there are no losses in the line.
What is our solution of this issue?
All the cables are equipped with the best connectors of vanguard manufacturers. These connectors are made of pure silver and copper that is of the same materials as the conductors. In this case the connectors become a logical extension of the conductor. As a rule, cables are equipped with connectors by means of crimping during which materials are diffusing. In those situations when it is impossible to avoid soldering (interconnect cables) a special method is applied. Conductor and connector’s pin are subject to all-round compression in the place of connection, quickly heated and connected with a silver-containing solder. In this case the compression tightness is sufficient so that two connected materials behave as a single conductor when the signal is transferred. The solder acts as a “glue” in this situation.
8. Other Issues
Still there remains a range of issues associated with the music signal transmission. Notwithstanding that they are secondary and are solved by standard methods, our company continues searching for improvements in this field as well. The majority of cables on today’s market are multi-core cables consisting of many stranded thin conductors. Litz cables are also widely used; they employ multi-core conductors’ groups. Due to thin conductors’ flexibility multi-core cables are quite user-friendly, however, multi-core cables and litz cables generate so called eddy currents (Foucault currents). These currents cause sudden failures in signal transmission and result in distortions and sound degradation.
Our company uses single-core structure in which eddy currents are not able to generate a priori. This ensures exclusively true-to-life transfer of signal from the source without sound artefacts, failures and distortion, and retaining sufficient flexibility. Using PTFE as conductor’s outer coating allowed us to improve conductance and decrease external vibrations’ influence.
Klinaev Vitaly Cables is
And as a result:
All these aspects together ensure high quality of full-scale 3D sound. Klinaev Vitaly Cables company products help delicately and accurately send a sound to the listener and fully unlock potential of home audio system. Using Klinaev Vitaly Cables products you will be able to fully appreciate the purest sounds of your favorite music.
Best wishes, Vitaly Klinaev